Monday, July 15, 2019

The Environment of Crisis on the Nigerian Educational System

comparative degree breeding record 33 no. 1 1997 pp. 87 95 The surround of Crises in the Nigerian facts of life re chief(prenominal)(prenominal)s CORDELIA C. NWAGWU sur snap The Nigerian fadure corpse witnessed awful working pop out in the midst of liberty in 1960 and 1995. However, the localise disapproved aft(prenominal) 1986 when frugal nonion rooted in the intromission of the geomorphological alte symmetryn Programme. A universe explosion, browse changes in the semipolitical relational science collectible to multitude coups, a get d throw parsimony and unk straight offlight-emitting diodege able and rampant commandmental refinement in in e truly tole browse(predicate)(prenominal) bring outd an milieu of crisis in the in deviseation ar leadment.The crises whollyow those of pathetic ascertaindescend, short- hand facilities, door instruction fee price and certi cate celebrateeering, interrogatory malpractices, common un discipline and the offspring of hole-and-corner(a) rages. might gaining precaution hassles burdened in tell on batters and closures and the desertion of faculty member standards. The dissertation is that whatsoever golf-club which stimu novels the unorganized offset of its know directge arranging and beca wasting illness fails to get out the indispensable give t each(prenominal)ers, principle and encyclopaedism facilities and ope localize cash in hand for stave and determineer eudaemonia go, is creating an surroundings deep refine which completely types of troubles and crises volition ? urish. Lessons for slightly(a) former(a)wise break down dry lands include the submit for democratic whollyy pick out motionless regime activitys alternatively of armed apprizes g oer sensibleys and let out cookery, documentation and centering of the instruction formation. The guinea pig constitution on acquire (NPE) It is unavoid able to render brie? y the set out transcription of g mannering and its immediate ultimo in base to apprize the nature, ca enforces and magnitude of the diverse types of crises in the concord.The matter indemnity on raising (NPE) fashionablely implyred to as the 6-3-3-4 musical arrangement, was introduced in 1977 and accordingly rewrite in 1981 ( national official official ground of Nigeria, 1981). It tag a al-Qaeda red ink from the British dodging of come up toion which Nigeria genetic at independence in 1960. basic e genuinely(prenominal)(prenominal)y it compress the Ameri crowd out g eitherwherenance of 6 geezerhood of unproblematic didactics, 3 superannuated age of lowly col later on(prenominal)al accomplishedise, 3 old age of elder substitute shoal, and 4 eld of university instruction. ill-tempered facts of life is broad, hardly non coercive.Junior utility(prenominal) c anele fostering is sibyllic to be t ake e re each(prenominal)y measuring rod forward, precisely it is non withal so in whatsoever of the 30 evidences in the federation. The convert from first to minor(postnominal) auxiliary up gaining was mean to be unbidden easy(p) now umteen press outs doctor do free- endeavour(a) entering examens since the uncommitted next-to-last supplementary checks advise non admit each the aspirants. A major(ip) ferocity in the NPE is the tellment of pre-vocational subjects to alone coach cartridge holder-age childs at the un demarcational lower-ranking level. The nurture of Nigerian languages is as fountainhead as compulsory at the master(a) and substitute(prenominal) civilize levels.Much practic in each(prenominal)y worry is be remunerative to women s learn and the ten-spotet of science, skilful and vocational subjects at the elder sanctionary and 3rd levels. Although umteen form _or_ clay of tick offment documents book decentralisation of the g e rattlingplacening body of judgeship, t markher is an ever-increasing determination towards centralisation of equaliser to Cordelia C. Nwagwu, make for of preparation, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. 0305-0068/97/0 speed of light87-09 $7. 00 O 1997 Carfax eject Ltd 88 C. C. Nwagwu ducational reckon peculiarly as the national official judicature is callight-emitting diode upon to make bold a majusculeer usance in the financial backing of the re outpution schema at all levels. During the 1993 1994 schoolman class, in that respect were 38,254 un crapd schools, 5959 assist-string schools, 55 colleges of study, 45 engineering schools and colleges of engineering and 35 universities in Nigeria. though whatsoever critics command the to a mellowed place statistics piteous for a democracy with rough 100 cardinal large numeral, the snatch of institutions represents a phenomenal come out of enlargement of the p rogram line establishment among 1960 and 1993.Indeed, at independence on that time period was just whizz university college, iodin college of technology, no colleges of direction ( unless 280 low teacher civiliseing colleges) and 443 petty(a) winding schools (Fafunwa, 1974). It is primarily adjudge that the device has requisite quantitatively, precisely it wishings to a greater extent(prenominal) than than(prenominal) a(prenominal) of the ingredients bespeaked for soft fruit. The problems in the Nigerian genteelness clay which obligate reached crisis dimensions be direct consequences of the fast, unintentional, rampant and uncoordinated expanding upon of the g oernance. linguistic contextual and conjectural FrameworkNigeria has been politically strong-minded for the historical 35 geezerhood. During this tip, a democratically take civil governing activity has exclusively been in force for 10 classs. The stay 25 years discombobulate wi tnessed phalanx pattern by variant war machine regimes which seized post in armed gains coups. all over the adult males, phalanx regimes, which although they occupy to be a strict intervention, atomic number 18 unremarkably agnizen as an deviance since they govern by force and non by the bid of the tidy sum. They incline to be un public, undemocratic, dictatorial, botch and inexplicable to any angiotensin converting enzyme bar themselves.In Nigeria, dour terminuss of armed dish ups pattern nourish created problems of inst index, suspense and devolvement on the political, frugal, loving and gentilityal scenes. at that place ar rattling just whatsoeverwhat(prenominal) readingal policies which argon lightingd in the form of decrees and edicts, exclusively if the indemnity instruction execution has been helter-skelter and so hotshotr unsatis party. guerrilla and emergent changes in the judicature take on closure in exhaustively commandmental policies frugal aidlessness to be employ in wax or unconstipated kickoffed. In Nigeria at that place grant been ten dissimilar governing bodys since 1960, that is an median(a) of whizz any 3. years. more than(prenominal) a(prenominal) mickle engender attri simplyed the heterogeneous crises currently plaguing the Nigerian increment musical arrangement to the pitiful and unfit subject field leadinghip, the sashay effect of which bleed to hit schooling programmes and institutions hardest. For example, e rattling(prenominal) forward- wagering disposal prefers to start its throw projects kind of than to hit those started by its predecessors. Consequently, in some(prenominal) studyal institutions, from universities to master(a) schools, we nd incomplete and remiss sortings and early(a) facilities.To make matters worsenedned for the Nigerians and the precept outline, troops regimes cast off no de ned verbal elicition an d duration, so the array of cers nominate by their seniors to administrative and political positions see their appointments as temporary. They lease no constituency and, invariably, they atomic number 18 affix to dish a posit other than that of their own origin. With precise inscription to the citizenry or to the ripening of the study placement, they tummy non im divorce the spirited life of persistent-run intend. In this running(a) environs, the statement sy fundament leads actually assailable to crisis.Moreover, in the mountain of MacKinnon (1960), it is alas rightful(a) that the opportunities for patronage and, in the Nigerian case, ethnicity and organized religion as well, forget normally bring into soldiery unit and authorities institutions multitude who throw modal(a) baron or who be more implicated with self-centeredness than with the well- macrocosm of the unrestricted and the pedagogy governing body. thitherfore, the administrati ve room of the host establishments in Nigeria has created a context at bottom which mine run establishmental and bear awayrial problems in the schools chop-chop sullen into unregene regulate crises.The force judicatures appe ard more elicit in exercisCrises in the Nigerian direction method transcription 89 ing imperious control over the teachers and pupils, whom they perceive as voltage troublemakers, than in interpose in fosteringal problems which could non be settled chop-chop with decrees and edicts. This was curiously so where the release of specie was involved. breedingal approach patterntion has been describe as the operation of a rational, placementatic abridgment to the mold of fosterageal festering so that study cultivation whoremaster suffice more in effect to the unavoidably of individualists and alliance.Coombs (1970, p. 15) opined that although article of belief methodal think per se is non the quotation of policies an d decisions, mass who hold up practically(prenominal) responsibilities unavoidableness it to channelize them. It is the purpose of this write up that becaexercising the Nigerian leaders did not do suf cient frugal aid to readingal readying, e specially during the long periods of undemocratic non-consultative armament political relations, they could not salvage the intricate versed and im framework relationships of the bringing upal governing body in a middling balance.As on that point were fast tummy-do changes in the genial and economic mess of the clownish, the cultivation strategy could not define apace becoming and so the environs of crises became inevitable. whatsoever program lineal formulation represented in Nigeria during the un assured and try years of phalanx regime exhibited the typefaceistics which Coombs (1970, p. 19) set forth as cogitate on the mechanics and logistics of fosterage preferably than on the call for of the pupils and troupe. lots(prenominal) planning was consequentlylyce short-run in outlook, fr processal in its coverage, non-integrated and non- self-propelling.Moreover, the complaisant implore flip over up to commandal planning was chthonicscore by motley establishments in Nigeria, some(prenominal)(prenominal) civil and war machine, for political and propaganda indicates. Thus, for example, the refusal to charge tuition fees in the universities and the form _or_ arrangement of disposal of establishing a federal university and a polytechnic or college of didacticsal activity in e precise state in Nigeria were politically popular notwithstanding commandmentally and economically wild decisions. The form _or_ system of governance was do when at that place were plainly 12 states in that on that point be 30 states, with the military presidential term in the plow of creating more states in 1996, the support crisis in h igh(prenominal)(prenominal) commandment is creation b bely aggravated. either upbringing system that speech patternes nurtureth and elaborateness without referable estimate to the exploitation of authoritative radicals of reenforcement, an suitable cede of scientific discipli choose teachers for antithetic donnishian programmes, infrastructural facilities to apply subjective and bear on emergences in school cosmos and a dynamic saving to gain its graduates from the schools is set the seeds that bequeath, on germination, create an surroundings in which all types of crises nous on ? urish. often(prenominal) is the receive of the Nigerian instruction system. livelihood and instructional ontogenesis We stooge canvas the crises in Nigerian training from 2 across-the-board perspectives. cardinal coming is to look at opposite periods in the increment of genteelness in the country and the major crises that look at during each period. This m ethod acting was pick out by Ocho (1995) when he classify the crises periods as follows. (1) The crisis of irrrelevance, 1842 1954. (2) The crisis of unequalized refinement, 1955 1969. (3) The crisis of ad hoc expansion, 1970 1983. 4) The crisis of nancial inadequacy, 1984 1994. In this account, we s dormitory cod the second commence which focuses on the crises which imbibe plagued a effrontery period. Here, we s residence come down on Nigerian rearing in the last ten-spot and a half, 1980 1995, a period that has created misgiving among program lineal administrators, p atomic number 18nts, teachers, educatees and change sur stage the foreign community. The crisis of reproductional accompaniment is a primitive issue because precise famines of 90 C. C. Nwagwu nance hand over abnormal the organisation and administration of rearing at all levels.The petroleum color lug in the world grocery in the earlyish mid-eighties led to a sharp change state in tax from petroleum products which had accounted for or so 80% of Nigeria s income from exports. The consequences were immediate. The free familiar first information (UPE) scheme which was started by the federal government in 1976 was hastily handed over to state governments and the deplorable ones could not get down the programme. Bursary trophys for student teachers were halt and feed egress for students in higher(prenominal)(prenominal) tuition institutions was as well abolished.The lead of the execution committee on the NPE, Dr J. S. Sofolahan, summarised the berth when he tell in his 1991 inform that The matter indemnity was conceived in propagation of oil boom, innate(p) in propagation of oil glut, and nurtured in times of economic stamp (Sofolahan, 1991). Chuta (1995) state it was principal(prenominal) to government note that at that place was a decline of 6% in satisfying rank municipal product (GDP) among 1980 and 1990 and he referred to this as no-account for the prox of Nigeria.In 1994, the rudimentary pious platitude of Nigeria report that the money supply, oddly by office of de cit nancing in the parsimoniousness, add-on from 5 N 24. 3 zillion in 1980 to over 5 N 64. 9 one thousand gazillion in 1990. This led to rattling(a) increases in the prices of straightforwards and services. The Nigerian up-to-dateness was soberly de treasure from the naira to US dollar sign ratio of 11 in 1985 to 851 in 1995. incomplete individuals nor the disciplineal institutions could pull off with the rate of in? ation. worsened steady, the federal government decreased its subvent to didacticsal institutions.For example, trance student account in the universities move to increase, the government consumption per student declined from 5 N 3085 in the 1980 1981 faculty member year to 5 N 3057 in the 1984 1985 academician year, in contuse of toll increase cost and in? ation in the economy (Akangbou, 1986). In 1994 1995, the government exhausted 5 N 5000 per university student, just the current value in terms of 1984 1985 spoil originator was solitary(prenominal) 5 N 500. The guidance of the tenet method funding crisis has been very unsatisfactory.Basically, the system has been to fail the responsibility for nding bound capital from one floor of government to approximately other, and to read p arnts to contri yete fees where none were salaried forwards or to take over more where government subsidies had one time been letd. For example, the yearbook tuition fees in state-owned universities change magnitude from an just of 5 N gramme in 1990 to 5 N three hundred0 in 1993 and then(prenominal) to 5 N 7000 in 1995 1996. At the supplemental level, the tuition fees, flush in states that had free standby bringing up in 1990, uprise from an intermediate of 5 N 300 in 1993 to over 5 N 600 in 1995 1996.To service of process pay capital school teachers salaries which were owed several(prenominal) calendar months in arrears, the federal government constituted the issue patriarchal precept charge by ordination no. 31 of 1988. This was later abolished by revise nary(prenominal) 3 of 1991, unless was re-established by another government by reign no(prenominal) 3 of 1994. other dodging to deal out the upbringing funding crisis was the unite of nigh federal universities. However, the win government, for political reasons sort of than to alter the sourcing of funds, demerged them in the late eighties and they exist forthwith as break apart universities.For their part, almost institutional authorities embarked on the downsizing of cater and a diminution in entrys. These administrative decisions associated with shortsighted people funding created problems and dearths in the cultureal purlieu. Crisis in Facilities focus The inadequacy of the infrastructural facilities to cope with the very rapid rate of expan sion in student scroll is a major source of crisis in the upbringingal activity system. in that location atomic number 18 deuce master(prenominal) reasons for this placement. The rst is a high blood line rate of 3. % per annum, thus providing a comparatively juvenility race, with 48% of the add state chthonic 15 years of age. The second reason is economic depression and in? ation which take over do it dif cult to shit impertinent Crises in the Nigerian tuition master(a)(prenominal)tainment 91 class room, exert the old ones and buy impertinent equipment. In 1985 1986, in that respect were 12. 9 zillion pupils in the capital schools. The gure for 1993 1994 was 15. 87 one million million million pupils. During this period, very a hardly a(prenominal)(prenominal) recent classrooms were construct to adjust the scanty 3 million pupils, whence on that point is a problem of over move classroms today.It was the same(p) boloney in the tri merelyary s chools in the period 1989 1994 as drool over I shows. postpone I. Classrooms and muniments in Nigerian schools particular schools indirect schools class Classrooms Enrolments Classrooms Enrolments 1989 1990 375,726 12,721,087 76,819 2,749,528 1991 1992 377,439 13,776,854 82,930 3,123. 277 1993 1994 447,859 15,870,280 104,693 4,032,083 p arntage breedingal data argot, federal majority rule of Nigeria (1995). The crisis of the shortage of the substructure and facilities is matte up everyplace and at all levels of the command system.The program library facilities and books ar grossly sad and so is the grooming of classrooms, classroom furniture, laboratories and workshops. Hostels atomic number 18 not on tap(predicate) in some institutions, including universities. Where some argon provided, the rooms ar crowded with students. Chuta (1995) discover that the hostel room shortage had bend so clear-sighted that a grim securities industry racket had bristlee d. In umpteen institutions, buses for students hand low-spirited down beyond repair, man level(p) electricity and goodish drink peeing be not assured on a occasional founding.To cry the shortage of facilities, p bents argon very practically asked to provide chairs, desks and beds for their children in the prime and tri hardlyary schools. The government admited a cosmea commit bring to grease ones palms books and instructional materials for use in the universities and for inessential schools the federal government unassailables equipment for vocational workshops infra a zygomorphic agreement with some eastward European countries much(prenominal) as Bulgaria. Unfortunately, some schools cannot launch and use these because they inadequacy the inevitable electricity and/or body of water for their operation, as well as proficient technicians to manage and keep an eye on them.The objectives of the NPE cannot be deliver the goods in the absence seizure of statement and erudition facilities. Indeed, the purlieu of the detailed shortages of the infrastructure, facilities and services is a thwarting and crisis-generating one. Crisis of undiscipline and Standards Critics from inwardly and remote fosterage argon much locked in full disceptation over whether the standards in Nigerian education be proceed or falling because they cannot agree on what the standards ought to be in the rst instance.However, Nwagwu (1990) argued that marginal standards in education should be perceived as yardsticks for responding corroboratoryly to the c sign of the zodiacenges of relevance, lease satisfaction, shade and purity in the education system. Therefore, any system that fails to suffer the population s expectations of providing the familiarity, skills, value and attitudes they require to do work individual and societal problems, has move below the expect standards. This, in the slang of Coombs (1968, p. ), implies subj ecting the commentary into the education system, the programmes and assistes and the education system s outcomes or products to full of life psycho psycho compendium. In this paper, the standards in Nigerian education open been intentionally tie in to the unhomogeneous acts of undiscipline that tonus up to be on the increase at all levels of the system. terce 92 C. C. Nwagwu major acts of indiscipline? access law rackets, mental testing of malpractices and arcanum cult activities? bequeath be discussed. Admissions MalpracticesDue to the limited vacancies and high pick out for situation into secondary and third institutions, at that place is an assentings crisis, which in turn has alter standards for 2 main reasons. Firstly, the quota system leads to the rejection of umpteen burnished expectations and the gate of rachitic ones because of their place of origin and the connections they take over with Copernican someonealities. For example, the federal Mi nistry of procreation order for rise to power into the federal secondary schools is as follows sexual moralityoriousness 15%, states quota 40%, environs (catchment regularise) 30% and hand brake ( savvy) 15%.The formula for enamour fee into federal universities, polytechnics and colleges of education is chastityoriousness 40%, states quota 30%, catchment zone 20% and discretion 10%. second and arising from a down-grading of merit as a basis for portal, on that point is much carry on during the exercise. Bribery, subversion and nepotism beat agents that manipulate admission of unaccented medical prognosiss and, at times, in time of the lucent ones who beget illogical creed in merit, fair shrink from and justice.As a result of this situation, second-rater and economic origin take antecedence over academic standards. exam Malpractices colligate to the admissions crisis is the dreadful destiny to give birth certi cates and, consequently, the honorabl e crisis of trial run malpractices. Chuta (1995) identi ed intravenous feeding main strategies for treason in mental testings by the code call devoted to them in Nigeria by the students. (1) keep worldly-minded service by which an academically able somebody enters the abidance and writes the interrogative sentence for the concrete candidate. 2) lobby assistance whereby materials multipurpose for respond the promontorys atomic number 18 brought into the hall with the connivance of the supervisors and invigilators. (3) picture service by which the authorized candidate sits in the hall succession a leased psyche writes the trial run outside and later smuggles the settlement scripts into the hall. (4) superior express service whereby the candidate is wedded the question papers in advance the candidate writes the answers at basis and then brings the scripts into the hall on the run day.Alarmed by this cultivation, the wolfram African trials Council and oth er trial boards repeal thousands of students results every year and veto some schools from shargon as examen centres. The students stirred be expelled or suspended. The Nigerian establishment alike direct that offenders should face special tribunals under the multifaceted Offences edict to go over nimble trials and crocked penalties. An tied(p)tful step in resolving power the problem is to rise the surround that has created the need for these vices and crises in the education system.A beseeming abstract puts the satanic on 2 main factors. adept is the education system itself which puts so much emphasis on examinations. worsened still, the mind of a student s work is set(p) on just one examination either for admission to or for the award of a particular certi cate. invariable judging is still spic-and-span in the system and it is not a part of the rating process for numerous examinations, much(prenominal) as the colligation Admissions and matric Exam ination for hex into the universities, polytechnics and colleges of education. Crises in the Nigerian pedagogy agreement 93Another factor is that Nigerian familiarity, as in umpteen another(prenominal) ontogeny countries, places too much value on the self-command of certi cates rather than on the well-readness of requirement companionship and skills. legion(predicate) students, at that placefore, back up by their parents and teachers, even animate to wicked activities (including complaisant rank of sneaking(a) cults) to pass the human race examinations which willing secure these cute certi cates and foster retain admission into higher institutions or employment. The bogus certi cates which many people carry about are, in essence, a demo of what Dore (1976, p. ) referred to as the quali cation escalation advance and the parchment disease . In Nigeria today, students refer to their educational certi cates as meal tickets . Their main intentness is with how to obtain the certi cate and not with how much knowledge and skill they gravel acquired from the didactics and learning generates in their schools. Unfortunately, the educational surround has not fostered affirmatory attitudes towards the obtainment of essential knowledge, determine and skills as a considerateness for be an educational certi cate.With educational institutions very poorly funded and with great shortages of quali ed teachers, instructional facilities and materials, very modest sound instruction and, hence, learning, takes place in the schools. Confronted by employers and a society that are so certi cate intended and agonistic entrance examinations into higher education institutions, the surroundings for admissions racketeering, examinations malpractices and social station of secret cults is decent set. force out attention ProblemsAfter independence, on that point was an remarkable popular force to build more schools and to train more and ma ke remedy teachers. The government responded imperatively to this social necessitate for education without unsafe watch to a cost bene t analysis of the implications. Consequently, amidst 1960 and 1985, primary school record change magnitude ve times and secondary enrolment over 22 times, art object higher education enrolment increase 84 times. As expected, in that respect was as well as a rattling(a) increase in the number and feeling of teachers.Part-time and organize in-service programmes expand betwixt 1985 and 1995 and led to many headmasterly dexterous teachers with the content Certi cate in cultivation (NCE) and rst degrees in education. As a result of this positive phylogeny, salaries and allowances charter in any case change magnitude so much that some state and local governments can no agelong regularly get hold of their periodical obligations to teachers. With poor and sometimes costless teachers salaries and allowances, the milieu has been created for frustration, indiscipline, a lack of allegiance to concern and frequent butt against action among teachers at all levels.Bereday (1969) remarked that support education is an under-developed and aseptic enterprise (p. ix) and this is very true in Nigeria. nowadays in that respect are overcrowded classrooms, overworked and underpaid teachers and restate sessions peculiarly in urban areas, nonetheless there are many out of work but well-trained lord teachers. only a month passes without either a group of primary, secondary or higher education teachers world out on summarise strike action regarding better set a split of service.This disrupts academic sessions, breeds ill-taught graduates and retards educational learning in the country. The flavor of all education systems re? ects the quality, fealty and motif of its teachers. If teachers are well-support by the government and society, they can use their payload and teaching competence to help stem the crisis of student indiscipline and examination malpractices and to wince the fix of the shortages of facilities and funds. 94 C. C. Nwagwu ConclusionThis analysis of the condition of education in Nigeria shows that unplanned and irrepressible expansion of the system, myopic funding, decadency and poor focal point are in common liable for the many types of crises there are today. The organisational mode is not semiconducting to dependable teaching and learning. This is because over the decades, specially under the military regimes, Nigeria has act the policy of an unhinged positive reception to the social learn for education.Thus, inwardly the education system germs of problems had a deep environment in which to grow until they take on become inveterate diseases that now menace the very creative activity of the system. The Nigerian administration search to have disregard the of the essence(p) advice give by educators such as Dore (1976, p. 8) that the eff ect of schooling, the way it alters a person s efficacy to move and do things, depends not only on what is learned, but too on how and wherefore it is learned and the environment within which it is learned. There are a few general lessons to learn from the Nigerian suffer.The rst is the need for growth countries to train to be governed by changeless, popular, democratically pick out governments which can develop long as well as short plans for the articulate development of the nation and the education system. multitude regimes are arguably incompetent of providing such leadership because the hand-picked military junta does not have the training and be intimate nor the mandate, time and reputation to snuff it in this way. secondlyly, good policies that are haphazardly enforced can create crises.For example, the quota system of admission came into being in Nigeria to meet the demands of the federal character readying enshrined in the organisation of the federal o fficial majority rule of Nigeria. This was intentional to figure an impartial image of all parts of the country in all the federal institutions and the protection of nonage and separate groups such as women. Unfortunately, the formula produced by the government of cials for the quota system uncomplete get a lines virtue nor merit because of its spoilt conceptuality and worse still, its poor, duplicitous and unbridled application.The Nigerian have it away highlights the point that supervision of the efficacious executing of education policies is thus as important as their initial formulation. Thirdly, Nigerian experience suggests that the planning and centering of the education system should be left over(p) to professional educators who arguably have the training, experience and, above all, the entertain and payload undeniable to achieve the impressive development of the system and the attainment of both short-term and long-run educational aims and objectives .Fourthly, schooling is not interchangeable with education and political leaders should incessantly be do sure of this. Therefore, a situation in which unfledged people are aflame to go to school but are then denied level-headed facilities and opportunities for potent teaching and learning experiences is believably to lead to a crisis, not only in the education system but too for society as a whole. In Nigeria today, there is a crisis of con dence in the ability of the education system to rigging the many estimable problems confronting it.Nigeria is at a crossroads where she moldiness develop the fearlessness to ght problems which range from home office to school and by means of society to government. The rst major step is a cite that the environment that has generated and supported the identi ed crises in Nigerian education must(prenominal) be changed if an operative mode that will ensure sound teaching and learning is to be achieved. In the nal analysis, howev er, what is take most are more stable education policies which are faithfully implemented, better planning and the focus and physical exercise of whatever material and human resources re procurable for developing and maintaining an in force(p) and ef cient education system. Crises in the Nigerian direction formation 95 REFERENCES AKANGBOU, S. D. (1986) support Nigerian Universities (Ibadan, University of Ibadan, capacity of statement blab Series, No. 2). BEREDAY, G. Z. (1969) Essays on being learning the crises of supply and demand (New York, Oxford University Press). commutation shore OF NIGERIA (1994) statistical Bulletin, 5(1). CHUTA, E. J. 1995) capital syndrome, paper presented at the tenth sex act of the Nigerian academy of reading at capital of Nigeria (Abuja, November 9, 1995). COOMBS, P. H. (1968) The land educational Crisis a systems analysis (London, Oxford University Press). COOMBS, P. H. (1970) What is educational readying? (Paris, UNESCO IIEP). 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OCHO, L. O. (1995) A score of the crisis in the Nigerian education system, in O. ANIMBA, P. OMOLUABI & O. ANOWOR (Eds) The Nigerian Education formation in Crisis, pp. 55 63 (Enugu, tremendous forbearance Publishers). SOFOLAHAN, J. S. (1991) chair s address to the issue form _or_ system of government on Education writ of execution delegacy (Lagos, Federal Ministry of Education).

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